Who Is at Risk for AKI?

Children and adults (especially adults 75 years of age and older)

Patients with prior kidney problems or chronic diseases such as CKD, heart failure, liver disease, or diabetes

Individuals with dehydration, urinary tract blockage, or sepsis due to severe infection such as COVID-19

Patients taking certain medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), blood pressure medications, or antibiotics

Hospitalized patients

Up to 22% of AKI cases worldwide occur in hospitals. Hospital-acquired AKI occurs in approximately 50% of critically ill hospital patients and causes 2 million deaths per year.16

Many severely ill patients with COVID-19 develop AKI, often during the second week of infection. Causes of AKI associated with COVID-19 are multi-factorial. Contributing factors include direct viral injury to kidney cells, dehydration, sepsis-mediated hypotension or immunologic injury, and microvascular disease.17 (See Pragmatic Recommendations for the Prevention and Treatment of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with COVID-19 in Low- and Middle-Income Countries).