Clinical Complications and Mortality Rates

AKI is commonly associated with fluid retention, reduced urine output, metabolic acidosis, hyperkalaemia, and hyperphosphatemia. Severe AKI is correlated with worse clinical outcomes and is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. AKI requiring dialysis is a risk factor for end-stage kidney disease and poor long-term quality of life.3

The increased mortality due to AKI in sub-Saharan Africa reflects several factors, including delay in seeking or initiating medical intervention and limited availability of renal replacement therapy.5