Characteristics, and Risk Factors

Acute kidney injury, also known as acute renal failure or acute renal insufficiency, is a common condition characterized by a sudden decrease in kidney function. The rapid increase in serum creatinine concentration and the accumulation of nitrogenous excretory products that occur during the hours or days after the onset of AKI can result in serious short- and long-term complications affecting the brain, heart, and lungs.1,2 Predisposing factors associated with AKI include:3,4


Infections, shock, and certain diseases including parasitic infections (such are malaria), viral infections (such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)), sepsis, hypovolemia, shock, rhabdomyolysis, and glomerular disease.

Some medications (e.g. prescription or over-the-counter)

Urinary retention or obstruction

Older Age

Heart failure, cardiac surgery

Pre-existing chronic diseases, including chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, liver failure

Complicated pregnancy or delivery

Infusion of contrast medium