Follow us on social media!

Misdiagnosis: Causes, Consequences, and Solutions

Misdiagnosis is a significant problem in the healthcare industry, which can negatively impact patients’ lives, lead to unnecessary treatments, and increase healthcare costs. It occurs when a health professional makes an incorrect diagnosis, leading to inaccurate or delayed treatment. Misdiagnosis is not uncommon, and it can happen to anyone, including experienced and well-trained healthcare professionals. This article explores the causes and consequences of misdiagnosis by healthcare professionals.


Several factors can lead to misdiagnosis by healthcare professionals, including:

1. Diagnostic Errors

Diagnostic errors are the most common cause of misdiagnosis. Healthcare professionals rely on diagnostic tests, imaging scans, and medical history to diagnose medical conditions accurately. However, these tests and scans can be misleading, resulting in inaccurate or incomplete diagnoses. For instance, a doctor might misinterpret a mammogram result, leading to a missed or delayed breast cancer diagnosis.

2. Cognitive Biases

Cognitive biases can influence a healthcare professional’s decision-making process, leading to misdiagnosis. Biases such as premature closure, confirmation bias, and availability bias can cloud a physician’s judgment and lead to incorrect diagnoses. For example, a doctor may diagnose a patient with the flu without considering other possible causes of the patient’s symptoms, such as pneumonia.

3. Lack of Communication

Lack of communication between healthcare providers can also contribute to misdiagnosis. For instance, if a radiologist fails to communicate important findings to the referring physician, the physician may make an incorrect diagnosis based on incomplete information.

4. Limited Time with Patients

Healthcare professionals often have limited time with patients, which can result in missed or incomplete diagnoses. Physicians may overlook vital information or fail to perform a thorough physical exam due to lack of time.

Consequences of Misdiagnosis

Misdiagnosis can have long-lasting and severe consequences for patients, including:

1. Delayed or Incorrect Treatment

Misdiagnosis can lead to delayed or incorrect treatment, worsening a patient’s condition. A wrong diagnosis can lead to unnecessary treatments, surgeries, or medications, which can cause harm to the patient. For example, a patient diagnosed with an allergic reaction to penicillin may receive inappropriate medicines, leading to complications.

2. Physical and Emotional Suffering

Misdiagnosis can result in physical and emotional suffering for patients. A wrong diagnosis can cause patients to undergo painful or invasive treatments that could have been avoided if the correct diagnosis had been made. It can also lead to psychological distress, such as anxiety and depression.

3. Increased Healthcare Costs

Misdiagnosis can lead to increased healthcare costs due to unnecessary treatments and medications. Additionally, misdiagnosis can lead to additional medical expenses and lost wages due to extended hospital stays and missed work.


Preventing misdiagnosis requires a collaborative effort by healthcare professionals, patients, and medical organizations. Some preventive measures include:

1. Improved Communication

Improving communication between healthcare providers can reduce misdiagnosis. Healthcare professionals should have access to complete medical records and communicate critical findings promptly.

2. Continued Medical Education

Continued medical education can help healthcare professionals stay up-to-date with current diagnostic methods and reduce cognitive biases contributing to misdiagnosis.

3. Patient Empowerment

Empowering patients to take an active role in their healthcare can help reduce misdiagnosis. Patients should be encouraged to ask questions, provide accurate medical history, and promptly report any changes in symptoms.

4. Quality Assurance Programs

Quality assurance programs can help identify and prevent misdiagnoses. Medical organizations should implement systems that monitor the accuracy and timeliness of diagnoses and provide feedback to healthcare providers when necessary.

The bottom line

Misdiagnosis by healthcare professionals is a widespread problem that can have severe consequences for patients. Diagnostic errors, cognitive biases, lack of communication, and limited time with patients can cause it. Misdiagnosis can result in delayed or incorrect treatment, physical and emotional suffering, and increased healthcare costs. Preventing misdiagnosis requires a collaborative effort by healthcare professionals, patients, and medical organizations through improved communication, continued medical education, patient empowerment, and quality assurance programs. By implementing these preventive measures, healthcare professionals can provide accurate and timely diagnoses, improving patient outcomes and reducing the financial burden of healthcare.

Akwaowo Akpan is a talented health writer. You can reach him here.  

Here are some resources to learn more about misdiagnosis and its prevention:

The World Health Organization. Diagnostic Errors. 

Rodziewicz TL, et al. Medical Error Reduction and Prevention. 

Saposnik G, et al. Cognitive biases associated with medical decisions: a systematic review. 

Society to Improve Diagnosis in Medicine. What is a diagnostic Error?,%2C%20wrong%2C%20or%20missed%20altogether

Your destination for online courses for healthcare practitioners practicing in Africa

The Missing Link to Improved Health Outcomes (MiLHO) Initiative provides online CPD courses that recognize and consider Africa’s unique medical practice environment by developing relevant evidence-based content. The initiative aims to expand opportunities for CPD to assist healthcare practitioners in staying current with evidence supporting patient care in their local setting. Courses are certified by the CPD Certification Service. Visit the MiLHO Initiative to learn more.